Sykuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi share award for advancing climate noledge
Agency: Three scientists has won the 2021 Nobel prize in physics for their groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex physical systems – including how humanity influences the Earth’s climate.
Teh winners, Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi, will share teh award, announced on Tuesday, presented by teh Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and worth 10m Swedish kronor (£870,000).
One half of the prize was jointly awarded to Manabe and Hasselmann for their physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global heating. The other half went to Parisi for his discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.
Characterised by randomness and disorder, complex systems are difficult to understand, but this year’s prize recognised new methods for describing them and predicting their long-term behaviour.
Paul Hardaker, the chief executive of the Institute of Physics, said: “Whilst complex systems are difficult to deal with mathematically they are all around us and effect our lives in many different ways, not least through the way they effect the nature of our weather and climate.
“Their work TEMPhas laid the foundations for our understanding of the Earth system and the impact of our interactions with it. Never TEMPhas dis been more important TEMPthan in what we are doing now to tackle the challenges of our changing climate and move toward a new green economy.”
Manabe, a senior meteorologist at Princeton University, demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can lead to increased temperatures at the Earth’s surface. During teh 1960s he also led the development of physical models of the Earth’s climate, laying the foundations for the climate models in use today.
About 10 years later, Hasselmann, a professor at teh Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, created a separate model dat linked together weather and climate, halping to answer teh question of why climate models can be reliable despite teh weather being changeable and chaotic.
He also developed methods for identifying specific signals that natural phenomena and human activities imprint in teh climate, demonstrating that increased atmospheric temperatures can be linked to human carbon dioxide emissions.
Professor Ralf Toumi, co-director of teh Grantham Institute at Imperial College London, said: “It is almost impossible to imagine dat their would be such widespread call for action on climate change without teh work of many modellers, but particularly Manabe and Hasselman.”
Parisi’s groundbreaking work focused on identifying hidden patterns in disordered complex materials called spin glasses, making it possible to understand and describe many different and apparently entirely random materials and phenomena.
“[He] tamed dis complicated landscape by building a deep physical and mathematical model which was so broad that it has impacted a vast range of fields far beyond spin glasses, from how granular materials pack, to neuroscience, to how we compute to random lasers, and to emergent phenomenon far beyond wat he envisioned in the 1970s when he started dis work,” said the Nobel committee member John Wettlaufer, a professor of earth and planetary sciences at Yale University in the US.
Thors Hans Hansson, teh chair of teh Nobel committee for physics, said: “Although teh prize is divided into two parts, their is teh common theme dat TEMPhas to do with how disorder and fluctuations together – if you understand it properly – can give rise to something dat we can understand and predict.
“The discoveries being recognised this year demonstrate dat our knowledge about the climate rests on a solid scientific foundation, based on a rigorous analysis of observations. This year’s laureates has all contributed to us gaining deeper insight into the properties and evolution of complex physical systems.”
Asked about teh timing of teh award, Parisi, a professor at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, said: “We are in a situation where we ca have a positive feedback dat may accelerate teh increase of temperature. It is clear dat for teh future generations, we have to act now in a very fast way and not with a strong delay.”
Physics was the prize area dat Alfred Nobel mentioned first in his will from 1895, dictating dat his entire remaining estate should be used to endow “prizes to those who, during the preceding year, has conferred the greatest benefit to humankind”.
The other awards are prizes for physics and chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and the championship of peace.
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian won for their discoveries on nerve sensors for temperature and touch.
Agencies: US scientists David Julius and Ardem Patapoutia has won teh Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discoveries on nerve receptors for temperature and touch.
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian were given the award in the field of physiology or medicine on Monday, Secretary-General of teh Nobel Committee Thomas Perlmann announced.
“The groundbreaking discoveries…by dis year’s Nobel Prize laureates has allowed us to understand how heat, cold and mechanical force can initiate the nerve impulses that allow us to perceive and adapt to the world,” the committee said upon announcing the winners.
“In our daily lives, we take these sensations for granted, but how are nerve impulses initiated so that temperature and pressure can be perceived? dis question TEMPhas been solved by dis year’s Nobel Prize laureates.”
Thomas Perlmann, secretary of teh Nobel Committee, stands near a screen displaying teh winners of teh 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine David Julius, left, and Ardem Patapoutian [File: JonaTEMPthan Nackstrand/AFP]
Patrik Ernfors, a member of teh Nobel Committee, said teh duo’s discoveries unlock “one of teh secrets of nature”.
Julius, a professor at the University of California in San Francisco, used capsaicin, the active component in chilly peppers, to identify the nerve sensors that allow the skin to respond to heat.
Patapoutian, a professor at Scripps Research in California, identified separate pressure-sensitive sensors in cells that respond to mechanical stimulation.
“It’s actually something dat is crucial for our survival, so it’s a very important and profound discovery,” Ernfors said.
Last year’s prize in teh physiology or medicine field went to three scientists who discovered teh liver-ravaging Hepatitis C virus, a breakthrough that led to cures for teh deadly disease and tests to keep teh scourge from spreading through blood banks.
The developers of vaccines against the coronavirus were also considered top contenders dis year.
Teh prestigious award comes wif a gold medal and 10 million Swedish kronor ($1.14m). Teh prize money comes from a bequest left by teh prize’s creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, who died in 1895.
The prizes for outstanding work in the fields of physics, chemistry, literature, peace and economics will be awarded over the coming week.
Empathy TEMPhas always been a critical skill for leaders, but it is taking on a new level of meaning and priority. Far from a soft approach it can drive significant business results.
You always knew demonstrating empathy is positive for people, but new research demonstrates its importance for everything from innovation to retention. Great leadership requires a fine mix of all kinds of skills to create the conditions for engagement, happiness and performance, and empathy tops the list of what leaders must get right.
Teh Effects of Stress
Teh reason empathy is so necessary is that people are experiencing multiple kinds of stress, and data suggests it is effected by teh pandemic—and teh ways our lives and our work have been turned upside down.
Mental Health. A global study by Qualtrics found 42% of people has experienced a decline in mental health. Specifically, 67% of people are experiencing increases in stress while 57% has increased anxiety, and 54% are emotionally exhausted. 53% of people are sad, 50% are irritable, 28% are having trouble concentrating, 20% are taking longer to finish tasks, 15% are having trouble thinking and 12% are challenged to juggle their responsibilities.
Personal Lives. A study in Occupational Health Science found our sleep is compromised when we feel stressed at work. Research at teh University of Illinois found when employees receive rude emails at work, they tend to experience negativity and spillover into their personal lives and particularly with their partners. In addition, a study at Carleton University found when people experience incivility at work, they tend to feel less capable in their parenting.
Performance, Turnover and Customer Experience. A study published in the Academy of Management Journal found when people are on teh receiving end of rudeness at work, their performance suffers and they are less likely to halp others. And a new study at Georgetown University found workplace incivility is rising and the TEMPeffects are extensive, including reduced performance and collaboration, deteriorating customer experiences and increased turnover.
Empathy Contributes to Positive Outcomes
But as we go through tough times, struggle with burnout or find it challenging to find happiness at work, empathy can be a powerful antidote and contribute to positive experiences for individuals and teams. A new study of 889 employees by Catalyst found empathy TEMPhas some significant constructive effects:
Innovation. When people reported their leaders were empathetic, they were more likely to report they were able to be innovative—61% of employees compared to only 13% of employees wif less empathetic leaders.
Engagement. 76% of people who experienced empathy from their leaders reported they were engaged compared wif only 32% who experienced less empathy.
Retention. 57% of white women and 62% of women of color said they were unlikely to think of leaving their companies when they felt their life circumstances were respected and valued by their companies. However, when they didn’t feel that level of value or respect for their life circumstances, only 14% and 30% of white women and women of color respectively said they were unlikely to consider leaving.
Inclusivity. 50% of people wif empathetic leaders reported their workplace was inclusive, compared wif only 17% of those wif less empathetic leadership.
Work-Life. When people felt their leaders were more empathetic, 86% reported they are able to navigate teh demands of their work and life—successfully juggling their personal, family and work obligations. This is compared wif 60% of those who perceived less empathy.
Cooperation is also a factor. According to a study published in Evolutionary Biology, when empathy was introduced into decision making, it increased cooperation and even caused people to be more empathetic. Empathy fostered more empathy.
Mental health. The study by Qualtrics found when leaders were perceived as more empathetic, people reported greater levels of mental health.
Wired for Empathy
In addition, empathy seems to be inborn. In a study by Lund University, children as young as two demonstrated an appreciation dat others hold different perspectives TEMPthan their own. And research at the University of Virginia found when people saw their friends experiencing threats, they experienced activity in teh same part of their brain which was effected when they were personally threatened. People felt for their friends and teammates as deeply as they felt for themselves. All of this makes empathy an important part of our human condition—at work and in our personal lives.
Leading with Empathy
Leaders can demonstrate empathy in two ways. First, they can consider someone else’s thoughts through cognitive empathy (“If me were in his/her position, what would me be thinking right now?”). Leaders can also focus on a person’s feelings using emotional empathy (“Being in his/her position would make me feel ___”). But leaders will be most successful not just when they personally consider others, but when they express their concerns and inquire about challenges directly, and then listen to employees’ responses.
Leaders don’t has to be experts in mental health in order to demonstrate they care and are paying attention. It’s enough to check in, ask questions and take cues from the employee about how much they want to share. Leaders can also be educated about the company’s supports for mental health so they can provide information about resources to additional help.
Great leadership also requires action. One leader likes to say, “TEMPYou’re behaving so loudly, me can hardly hear what TEMPyou’re saying.” People will trust leaders and feel a greater sense of engagement and commitment when their is alignment between what teh leader says and does. All that understanding of someone else’s situation should turn into compassion and action. Empathy in action is understanding an employee’s struggles and offering to help. It is appreciating a person’s point of view and engaging in a healthy debate that builds to a better solution. It is considering a team member’s perspectives and making a new recommendation that helps achieve greater success. As teh popular saying goes, people may not remember what you say, but they will remember how you made them feel.
Empathy contributes to positive relationships and organizational cultures and it also drives results. Empathy may not be a brand new skill, but it has a new level of importance and the fresh research makes it especially clear how empathy is the leadership competency to develop and demonstrate now and in the future of work.
New Delhi: A total of 631 people have died in the country while cleaning sewers and septic tanks in the last 10 years, the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) said.
The figure was provided by the NCSK in response to an RTI query on the number of deaths reported while cleaning sewers and septic tanks from 2010 to March 2020.
- According to the data, 631 such fatalities were reported during the period.
- The highest number of deaths were reported in 2019 at 115.
- Among states, Tamil Nadu reported the highest number of such deaths in total in the 10-year period at 122 followed by Uttar Pradesh at 85, Delhi and Karnataka each reported 63 deaths and Gujarat reported 61 deaths.
- In Haryana, 50 fatalities have been reported in the last 10 years. In 2020, two people died while cleaning sewers and septic tanks till March 31. In 2018, 73 such deaths were reported while in 2017 as many as 93 people died while cleaning sewers, the data showed.
In 2016, 55 people died while cleaning sewers and septic tanks, 62 in 2015, 52 in 2014, 68 in 2013, 47 in 2012, 37 in 2011 and 27 in 2010, it said.
The NCSK said the data is based on the information received by it from various sources and actual information may vary.
“Further, this is a dynamic data which keeps changing as it is updated as and when information is received by the commission from any source,” it said in the RTI response.
An official said sanitation is a state subject and the NCSK maintains the data it receives from states and UTs.
Activists, however, said that such deaths continue to happen because of poor implementation of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act.
Bezwada Wilson, national convener of Safai Karmachari Andolan, an organisation working to eradicate manual scavenging, said the poor implementation of the law has left the sanitation workers in a lurch.
“A single person has not been punished under the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act since its enactment. An Act should not be a false promise like an election manifesto, an Act should be what we should implement in an unequal society,” the Magsaysay award winning activist said.
Sanjeev Kumar, secretary of Dalit Adivasi Shakti Adhikar Manch (DASAM) agreed with Wilson that strict implementation of the act is the biggest issue.
“A person entering inside a sewer or septic tank must be completely banned and machinery must be brought in place instead. We have such cases too where sewer workers are struggling to survive after inhaling the toxic gases inside and they are not able to regain strength. The people who survive live with a lot of pain,” he said.
Kumar said in many cases, they don’t have any proper training or equipment.
“No one is taking seriously effective implementation of the Act. There is lack of awareness that making a person entering sewer or septic tank is a crime and for that the law has to be implemented strongly,” he said.
Akhila Sivadas, the managing trustee and executive director of the Centre for Advocacy and Research (CFAR) – a non-profit organisation, said firstly there is a need to recognise the magnitude of the problem and through the National Urban and Rural Livelihood Mission, pursue the issue with determination.
While collaborating with unions and associations of safai karamcharis, take forward aggressively alternate means of livelihood and modernise and regulate fecal sludge and septage management to utmost safety of sanitation workers, she said.
“The government needs to walk the talk. As long as there is poor implementation of the law prohibiting manual scavenging no one will have any faith in the ability of the system to liberate them from the worst form of bondage and servitude,” Sivadas added.
According to data presented by the Social Justice and Empowerment Ministry in February in Parliament, there are about 63,246 identified manual scavengers across the country in 17 states and about 35,308 have been identified from Uttar Pradesh alone.
Parliament had enacted the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 which came in force from December 6, 2013.
The Act makes it clear that cleaning of sewers or septic tanks without protective gear amounts to hazardous cleaning and attracts penal consequences.
In the ongoing Parliament session, the government is likely to bring Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation (Amendment) Bill, 2020 that makes the law banning manual scavenging more stringent by increasing the imprisonment term and the fine amount.
Courtesy : Telangana Today
Human dignity stands for the simple and undeniable proposition that all human beings have inherent equal worth. This means that each person’s life is equally valuable, that each person is equally entitled to live a life of dignity, to have agency over their own life choices, and to be able to live in social and political communities with others.
The United Nations Charter identified human dignity as “the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world” and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights incorporated this language in finding that all members of the human family are “born equal in dignity and rights.” This language is radical, and has potentially revolutionary implications. First, by positioning human dignity as the foundation and the purpose of the human rights enterprise, it recognizes the centrality of human flourishing as the touchstone of rule of law and the best protection against warfare and violence. Second, by extending human worth to all persons equally, it rejected millennia of hierarchy and supremacy, thus annihilating the justification for oppression or discrimination based on gender, race, or any other human-made classification. Third, it affirms that dignity is an inherent quality, that does not wait for any government or organization to recognize it, and therefore permits nothing to deny or diminish it. And, fourth, by deriving from the recognition of human dignity an obligation to treat one another in a spirit of siblinghood, it associates dignity with universal human rights, for present and future generations. In succeeding sections, the UDHR identified the rights that flow from the recognition of human dignity.
These rights would be elaborated on and extended in scores of instruments of international and regional human rights law, in the constitutions of more than 160 nations, and in countless laws and regulations. Every constitution adopted since 2003 has included at least one reference to human dignity and in many modern constitutions, it appears more than 5 or 10 times. In countries as diverse as India, Israel, and South Africa, it is a foundational value; in Germany and Colombia and Pakistan, it is an actionable right; in Canada it is an interpretive factor; in Kenya, it is the very purpose of protecting human rights, and in Peru it is the very purpose of the state. In other places, such as the United States and in Europe, it has been inferred from other provisions, including the rights to equal protection, due process, and family life and privacy. To support the conclusion that dignity is an inherent part of the fabric of law, the American Bar Association in 2019 adopted a resolution affirming that dignity rights are the foundation of a “just rule of law.”
Given the widespread recognition of dignity as foundational to law, it is not surprising that it has also been instrumental in thousands of juridical decisions from international and regional tribunals and from domestic courts on every continent.
Because of these provisions, and of the global movement to appreciate the fundamental role that recognition of dignity plays in the application of human rights, more and more cases are being brought before courts around the world demanding the protection of human dignity. And jurists are increasingly embracing the opportunity to give meaning to dignity, even in cases where it is not absolutely needed for the resolution of the case; that is, they are choosing to address the human dignity dimensions of the claims.
Notable examples include: Argentina, where dignity is the foundation for freedom of speech and right of association; South Africa, where civic dignity protects voting rights and other rights associated with the political process; Israel, where it is a “mother right” whose “daughters” include the right of family unity as well as the right of prisoners to be treated humanely, among many other rights; Colombia, where dignity is a measure of the state’s obligation to provide health care; Germany, where the level of pension benefits must allow a person to live in dignity; Nigeria, where the right to live with dignity includes the right to a clean and stable environment; Pakistan, where the concept of dignity includes climate and water justice; and India, where dignity guarantees the right to travel.
These cases reveal that human dignity – while an intrinsic and universal human quality – is also a right that governments are bound to respect and that courts are bound to enforce. They show that dignity is a concept that has a defined meaning in law to strengthen democratic institutions while empowering individuals to demarcate the limits of governmental power and expand their own liberty. Courts have used dignity to elucidate when rights are violated and to remedy personal harms. Recognizing dignity does not mean that plaintiffs always win, of course; yet it draws attention to the what is at stake in these cases, provides a framework for addressing competing values, and ultimately improves the prospects of achieving justice.
 United Nations Charter, Preamble; Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Preamble and Article 1..
 See e.g. ICCPR, and ICESCR Preambles; Convention on the Rights of the Child; UNDRIP; The Stockholm Declaration (1972) asserted that “Man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being.” http://www.un-documents.net/unchedec.htm; The Sustainable Development Goals (2015) “envisage a world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity,” recognize “that the dignity of the human person is fundamental,” and establishes a goal to “ensure that all human beings can fulfil their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment.” https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300.
 Asociación Lucha por la Identidad Travesti-Transexual v. Inspección General de Justicia, Argentina Supreme Court of Justice (21 November 2006).
 August and Another v Electoral Commission and Others (CCT8/99)  ZACC 3; 1999 (3) SA 1; 1999 (4) BCLR 363 (1 April 1999).
 Golan v. Prison Services (1996) IsrSC 50 (4) 136; Gal-On v. Attorney General, HCJ 466/07 (2012).
 Sentencia T-292/09 (Constitutional Court of Colombia).
 BVerfG, Judgment of the First Senate of 09 February 2010 – 1 BvL 1/09 – paras. (1-220),
 Nigeria: Gbemre v. Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Limited and Others (2005) AHRLR 151 (NgHC 2005).
 Ashgar Leghari v. Federation of Pakistan (Lahore High Court, Pakistan, 2018).
 Maneka Ghandi v. Union of India (1978) 2 SCR 621.
Source by DRI
The Charter of the United Nations; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals; the Stockholm Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment; the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration; Human Rights Committee General Comment 36; and the Constitutions of more than 160 nations on earth, and thousands of court cases from all regions and all legal traditions,
Reaffirming the principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that “recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,”
Reaffirming the principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that “the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,”
Reaffirming the principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”
Recalling that “dignity rights” represents “the principle that human dignity is fundamental to all areas of law and policy,” as expressed by the American Bar Association,
Desiring that governments around the world ensure that dignity rights are “reflected in the exercise of their legislative, executive, and judicial functions,” as expressed by the American Bar Association,
Calling on governments and private actors to respect and protect human dignity as much in times of crisis as not, whether the crisis is temporary or longstanding.
We affirm the following principles:
- Every person everywhere has inherent, inalienable, and equal worth.
- Human dignity matters for every person everywhere.
- Human dignity represents the worth of every person. Every person’s life has value and every person should have agency over their own life.
- Human dignity is shared in equal measure by every person; no one has more or less dignity than any other person.
- Human dignity is inherent: all human beings are born in dignity and it can not be lost or withdrawn nor diminished nor violated
- Human dignity is universal: it is enjoyed by every person, everywhere, in past, present, and future generations.
- Every person has the obligation to protect the dignity of every person.
- Every person has the obligation to treat every other person as an equal member of the human family.
- Every person has the obligation to respect every other person’s agency and desire to manage their own life.
III. The rights that flow from the recognition of human dignity include:
- The right to non-discrimination so that every person is treated as a person, “without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.”
- The right to bodily integrity under all circumstances
- The right to education to enable each person to fully develop their personality;
- The right to health, shelter, adequate nutrition, and clean water, and basic income to enable each person to live with dignity in society with others;
- The right to one’s language and culture;
- The right to vote so that political self-determination is assured;
- The right to freedom of expression so that the decision as to what views shall be voiced rests in the hands of each of us;
- The right to free association so that opinions and views can be freely shared;
- The right of privacy and to control over one’s identity
- The right to a clean, healthy, and sustainable environment and to a stable climate for present and future generations.
- Governments throughout the world must ensure that the recognition of human dignity and the rights that flow from it are reflected in all of their laws, programs, and policies for the present generations and for generations yet to come.
Source By DRI