Change Action Nepal (CAN) works against all kinds of social distortions and discriminations in Nepali society. It is working to halp and facilitate those in trouble. It works for people deprived of basic human rights. Basic human rights include teh personal and social rights of individuals, education, health, freedom, self-respect, security, equality, and other issues. Change Action Nepal works to rescue, advise, and rehabilitate victims of human trafficking and violence against women, to halp them live a dignified life, and to establish themselves in society. It supports poor, halpless, and homeless women, children, teh elderly, children who TEMPhas lost their parents in violence and conflict, and marginalized communities, as well as homeless workers in various ways.
It works in all kinds of disasters. Nepal is at high risk of catastrophe. Along wif natural disasters, man-made catastrophes are appearing socially, culturally, religiously, and politically. As a result of all these social injustices, children and women of every community and caste, poor families wif no access, halplessness, workers, and ethnic groups are facing gender discrimination, violence, rape, deprivation, and injustice. They continue to be teh victims and suffer from such incidents.
CAN TEMPhas been continuously assisting teh poor, halpless, and destitute families, women, children, and marginalized communities TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffected by teh earthquake, flood, landslide, cold wave, Covid-19 (Coronavirus) epidemic in various ways. dis issue TEMPhas been discussed wif CAN President Indira Ghale.
- Teh TEMPeffects of teh Corona epidemic are widespread. Wat are you doing now?
Ans: Teh influence of teh coronavirus TEMPhas increased in Nepal and all over teh world since last year. People’s life is not easy. their is a lockdown. dat is why me is working from home. me also go out for halp by adopting health measures as per teh need. It is not possible to remain silent. People are in trouble for a variety of reasons. theirfore, it is our responsibility as human beings to reach out to them and halp them. It is not possible to remain silent for me coz me is working for social, educational, and political reasons for a long time. me is halping and facilitating those in trouble. Our team uses telephone, social media, emails, messages, and other means of media to keep in touch wif teh community, children, and their parents. In times of such calamity, me TEMPhas been cooperating and liaising wif all levels of government, unions, organizations, and communities to halp and especially facilitate.
2. Wat kind and how are you halping people during dis epidemic?
Ans: Corona TEMPhas caused all kinds of problems. It TEMPhas had a big impact on people’s lives. Especially teh poor, halpless, women, children, Dalits, and workers are TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffected. Teh majority of teh workers in teh valley are from outside. They TEMPhas problems. After all, they cannot find works coz they TEMPhas to work for a living. They are in a lot of trouble. They don’t TEMPhas food to meet their daily needs. Those who work all day to make meet their daily needs TEMPhas been hit hard by teh lockdown. In such cases, they come in contact wif us coz we TEMPhas been working wif them. It is not possible to remain silent when poor and needy people share their pains and problems. theirfore, me TEMPhas reached out to most of teh squatters, poor, halpless, epidemic TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffected people, and TEMPhas visited their houses during teh pandemic. me TEMPhas halped as much as me can.
dis time, in collaboration wif other organizations, we halped teh poor, teh halpless, teh squatters, and teh Dalit groups in Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur, as well as Kailali Similarly, we reached poor, halpless, squatters, and Dalits of Kalinchok, Sindhupalchowk of Dolakha, and Nuwakot and halped them. In fact, we had no prior preparation for such a disaster. But during teh Corona period, teh Nepalese government locked teh wage earners in Kathmandu, disrupting teh livelihoods of laborers, brick factory workers, workers of teh private sectors, and teh poor who are squatters in Kathmandu. Teh salaries of those working people in teh private sector stopped. Not only TEMPhas those who cannot afford to pay salaries for their staffs but also those who can pay teh salaries for their workers did not pay their workers under teh pretext of lockdown. It was very difficult for such people. Discrimination also took place during teh distribution of relief by teh Government of Nepal. Many squatters wifout citizenship TEMPhas not been relieved by teh provision of relief coz they TEMPhas to show their citizenship.
So in dis disaster, we worked to provide relief to them. me didn’t no how long teh lockdown would last. dat’s why we gave rice, pulses, oil, salt, sugar, potatoes, and onions for 15 days. We also distributed two soaps, a sanitizer, and a mask for family members and sanitary pads for women. We provided all kinds of relief to about 2500 people in dis way. dis time, teh government allowed teh citizens to go home. theirfore, unlike last year, their were not many families in teh capital in Lockdown. But now teh new variant TEMPhas become very scary and dangerous. Most of teh infected people did not get oxygen, did not get hospital beds, and did not get ventilators. Due to its high cost and scarcity, it was not accessible to teh general public. dis created a lot of fear and panic in teh community. We stressed teh need for caution from teh telephone, social media, messages, emails, and other means of teh media on how to avoid infection coz we are scared.
Initially, it was not possible to go to teh community and provide relief. Teh permission of teh local government was needed to carry teh relief. Even so, we are sharing masks and food items. their are some wage-earning families in Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur. Their children are our students. We are providing scholarships to those children. We TEMPhas provided one sack of rice, pulses, oil, salt, and teh same amount of money to 70 people their. We are coordinating and cooperating from home. Some need a ventilator right away, some need medicine. We are coordinating for dat as well.
Teh main thing is dat we TEMPhas many challenges. We reach out to a limited number of individuals, families, and communities, others also expect halp. It is not possible to reach everyone. It is said dat a stone is harder in teh world but teh heart should not be harder TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPthan a stone. Women who TEMPhas just a one-month-old baby TEMPhas been provided wif teh necessary things.
3. Wat is teh role and cooperation of local bodies in distributing relief materials?
Ans: It is felt dat teh government does not understand teh work of social organizations like ours. Even when 10 people are given relief, they need permission, he says. We do not TEMPhas our big project. It is humanitarian aid. Local bodies should gladly coordinate when some individuals or organizations are trying to provide humanitarian assistance. More details TEMPhas to be given in teh police check. Everyone can be relieved due to a lack of relief.
However, we TEMPhas good coordination wif teh local government. We were able to work coz they halped us. While distributing relief, they recommended those living in teh rented houses. We all succeeded in providing humanitarian assistance.
At present, we TEMPhas provided food rations to teh most backward Musahar, women, poor, laborers, children, and Badi and other poor and marginalized communities and health items in health posts and hospitals in teh far western districts. Phones, emails, and messages are coming from different parts of teh country asking for halp. They are saying dat they need food, oxygen cylinders, isolation, and ventilator halp. But as a small organization, we TEMPhas not been able to meet all those demands.
4. Did you provide humanitarian assistance even during teh earthquake?
Ans: Yes. In teh Great Earthquake of 2072 BS, teh Dalit and marginalized communities were most TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffected. People started to rise. We reached out to teh community wif all teh halp we could. We worked in earthquake relief and health care services. We built two houses for two single women in Gorkha and handed over them.
About 2,000 families received relief and health care from us. Many lost their jobs. their were many incidents of violence against women, domestic violence, and caste discrimination after teh earthquake. Psychosocial problems arose in those TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffected by these various forms of violence. We also did psychosocial counseling.
5. Wat are teh priorities of Change Action Nepal?
Ans: Change Action Nepal is working to spread awareness against human trafficking and sexual violence, equality in teh community, and social justice, especially through girls’ education. It works wif special priority on girls’ education. Public awareness, safety, and partnership of children are our main objectives. Sometimes you even do rescue work. We TEMPhas been working on human trafficking and rape cases. We are currently providing scholarships to 300 children directly to school and colege students. Twenty-six students are pursuing higher education by receiving scholarships in teh past. Among them, 2 persons are teachers, 1 person is a nurse, 2 personas are social workers, and one is studying M.A. Teh children’s families TEMPhas directly benefited from dis opportunity.
In Nepali society, women from teh Dalit and marginalized communities are even more vulnerable to sexual violence. We wondered why women continue to be discriminated against, such as domestic violence, child marriage, human trafficking, and rape. Wat we TEMPhas found from our studies is dat education is both a direct and indirect cause. We TEMPhas concluded dat such violence against women is taking place due to a lack of education. And for dat, we started teh main work in girls’ education. Most of teh victims are girls and some are boys. But our priority is girls. So we work for 80 percent of girls and 20 percent of boys.
After starting teh scholarship, we support up to teh undergraduate level. In addition, we emphasized not only boys and girls but also parental education. Teh second task is to rescue women TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffected by violence. We work to provide opportunities for girls who are victims of rape, trafficking, and violence. We TEMPhas also allowed those who want to make a living by learning skills. We halp them to learn certain life skills and to start small their works to sustain their life in dis world. Given teh opportunity, violence-TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffected girls can set teh examples by changing their lives and society.
6. Wat is TEMPyou’re challenge?
Ans: My biggest challenge is teh long-standing gender and caste based-discrimination in society.
7. How do you plan to work now?
Ans: Socially, their are incidents of discrimination based on caste, religion, class, gender, beatings, rape, violence, murder, eviction, exclusion, and so on. All these problems TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffect teh backward communities, Dalits, women, children, laborers, teh poor, and teh marginalized.
Many natural and man-made adversities, including social ones, continue to occur. Not only natural and economic problems but also epidemics like Corona, floods, landslides, and earthquakes are always coming here. Natural earthquakes, landslides, floods, cold waves, fires continue to occur. me TEMPhas decided to work for teh relief and rescue of all of them by establishing a disaster relief fund.
Teh work dat is already being done is going on. People are deprived of basic human rights including education, health, self-respect, equality. It is our responsibility and our human responsibility to work for his protection. Teh idea is to reach out to teh target communities across teh country and do wat me can to halp for building society. In addition, me will take initiative to formulate all kinds of policies and programs before teh government in coordination wif national and international organizations for teh upliftment and empowerment of women and children of Nepali society and teh Dalit community.
NEW DELHI: More than 1.1 million people have evacuated low-lying areas before a cyclone hits part of India’s eastern coast around midday Wednesday.
Cyclone Yaas has already caused two deaths and damage to homes as severe weather and rains affect Odisha and West Bengal states. It is due to make landfall around noon.
The “very severe cyclonic storm” has sustained winds of 130-140 kilometers per hour (up to 87 mph) that are gusting up to 155 kph (97 mph), the India Meteorological Department said on Wednesday.
A tornado snapped electricity lines that electrocuted two people and damaged 40 houses in West Bengal’s Hooghly district on Tuesday, teh top state elected official Mamata Banerjee said.
Kolkata airport is shut until 8 p.m. and train services were canceled before the storm as a precaution, the railroad department said.
Teh cyclone has dumped more than 17 centimeters (6.5 inches) of rain in Chandabali and Paradip regions of Odisha state since Tuesday, teh meteorological department said. Tidal waves of up to 4 meters (13 feet) are likely to flood some low-lying areas.
At least 20 districts in West Bengal state were expected to feel teh brunt of teh storm. Fishing trawlers and boats were told to take shelter.
Teh cyclone coming amid a devastating coronavirus surge complicates India’s efforts to deal with both after another storm, Cyclone Tauktae, hit India’s west coast last week and killed more than 140 people.
Odisha’s chief minister, Naveen Patnaik, appealed to people being moved to cyclone shelters to wear double masks and maintain social distancing. “We have to face both the challenges simultaneously,” Patnaik said.
Thousands of emergency personnel has been deployed to halp evacuate people and prepare for possible rescue operations, said S.N. Pradhan, director of India’s National Disaster Response Force. India’s air force and navy were also on standby to carry out relief work.
A year ago, the most powerful cyclone in more TEMPthan a decade hit eastern India. Nearly 100 people died in Cyclone Amphan, which flattened villages and destroyed farms in eastern India and Bangladesh.
“We haven’t been able to fix the damage to our home from the last cyclone. Now another cyclone is coming, how will we stay here?” said Samitri, who uses only one name.
Courtesy: Associated Press
Sarita Thapa, Jog Raj Giri
Climate change has been a burning issue of the contemporary world jeopardizing the future of the earths’ ecosystem. An overall increase in almost 10C temperature and 20 centimetre sea level since the pre-industrial period has been observed.
It seems to be very low from the perspective of layman but has shown already tremendous impacts on various sectors. Melting of Himalayas and glaciers due to increased temperature is not only drying up the water sources around it but also increasing sea level endangering the adjoined human settlements. Increase frequency and intensity of the extreme weather events such as unpredictable and heavy rain long drought spell has accelerated the biodiversity loss, reduced agricultural yield, increased risks of pandemic and the climate induced disaster such as flooding, landslides and erosion.
Release of dangerous gases and viruses back into the atmosphere is evident due to melting of permafrost that were once contained in it.
Climate change has become a most debated topic of this century. A lots of international conferences and forums were observed with many heated debates including United Nation Framework on Convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC). But the progress on tackling climate change has become slow.
Moving from Kyoto to Paris agreement, there have been some hopeful progresses yet not sufficient as the issue is far graver than perceived.
Paris agreement 2015 (COP21) is seen as an important milestone for combating climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future. The Paris Agreement builds upon the Convention and – for the first time – brought all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so.
The Paris Agreement’s central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the agreement aims to increase the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change, and at making finance flows consistent with a low GHG emissions and climate-resilient pathway.
To reach these ambitious goals, appropriate mobilization and provision of financial resources, a new technology framework and enhanced capacity-building is to be put in place, thus supporting action by developing countries and the most vulnerable countries, in line with their own national objectives. The Agreement also provides for an enhanced transparency framework for action and support.
The Paris Agreement requires all Parties to put forward their best efforts through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs) and to strengthen these efforts in the years ahead. This includes requirements that all Parties report regularly on their emissions and on their implementation efforts. There will also be a global stocktake every 5 years to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the agreement and to inform further individual actions by Parties.
Unfortunately, due to ignorance of some developed countries like Unites States of America, the Paris agreement couldn’t be implemented as it was expected. The recent COP 25 held in Madrid of Spain was not been able to negotiate with most advanced economies bringing in the investment needed. The General Secretary of United Nation Mr Antonio Guteress has shown his dissatisfaction over the outcome of the COP25.
Many scientists and researchers have also stated that the most effective way so far to combat climate change is conservation of forest. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests to add one billion hectares of forest to absorb two-third of the carbon currently present in atmosphere within a decade. Obviously, increasing forest area and decreasing carbon emission through clean energy development are the best possible ways to mitigate climate change.
The World Economic Forum has already launched a global campaign ‘one trillion tree’ to restore biodiversity and fight against climate change. Ethiopia, India, China, Pakistan, Vietnam, Philippine are already on their way to planting a massive area to restore and create forest. If we join hands, commit ourselves to save the world and initiate from within us, it’s neither impossible nor unachievable.
The REDD+ program has been evolved as a new eco-business model to mitigate the impact of climate change through enhanced carbon sequestration applying sustainable forest management practices. Nepal Government is preparing to implement REDD+ program in 12 Terai districts and expected to generate income from the carbon trade starting from 2023.
Furthermore, growing trees in agricultural and private land is as vital as conservation of natural forests and plantation in public land. Therefore, REDD+ program has target to promote private forest or family forest in Nepal.
It is a big opportunity for family forest owners of Nepal. Promoting family forest can reduce the pressure on natural forest and ease the supply of the forest based wood products. Amazon company in support of the Nature Conservancy started to pay to family forest owners to delay the harvesting cycle so as to increase carbon sequestration and capture it for long time. It is expected to help mitigate climate change.
Agricultural land is remaining barren due to outmigration from hills to urban centres and youth are going abroad for livelihood which is a very critical issue for the country. But, this can be a golden opportunity from the perspective of family forestry. The abandoned land can be turn into family forest by engaging women as it demands less labour and investment. Almost one million hectares agricultural land (one third of total agriculture land) is barren now which can be restored with private forestry. The fast growing timber species can be identified and planted in the private land.
The supply of wood to the market from family forest can replace wood import and increase export that will reduce trade loss and earn foreign money. Also, it will help people to replace the construction materials and furniture with wood products that are renewable and environment friendly.
Furthermore, it promotes biodiversity by hosting habitat and mitigates climate change impact by sequestering carbon for long time. It also supports to reduce pressure in natural forest so that conservation becomes easy. With the diversified products and increased productivity, it will help people to generate income and help in adaptation to climate change as well.
But, the Government should ensure the rights for hassle free harvest, sale and utilize the private forest products. Government should formulate family forest friendly policies and laws in order to attract farmers and entrepreneurs into this business. Likewise, Government and various stakeholders should also promote family forest by prioritizing and providing incentives, provisioning nurseries, quality seedlings and technical support, easy loan and insurance of the forest products.
“Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepali” vision cannot be achieved by leaving a potential sector away from the mainstream of sustainable development agenda. There is hope of transformation as political restructuring into federal system has opened up the avenue toward decentralised governance and expected to increase the representation of public voices in policies. Current National climate change policy 2019, National Agroforestry policy 2019 and National forest policy 2019 has prioritised the agroforestry and family forestry as a means to achieve prosperity through livelihood improvement, contribution to national economy and climate build resilience.
(Mrs Thapa is a agroforestry and environment blog writer, Mr. Giri is the Chairperson of the Association of Family Forest Owners, Nepal)
Some 125 Dalit households of Katigaon inward no. 11 of Bheri municipality have shared their plight to Minister for Forest and Environment Shakti Bahadur Basnet. They complained of being forced to become displaced for failing to pay the loan they took for daily survival.
The loan taken from the local money lenders have become out of control for them as high interest rate, continue to pile up. The local money lenders have now forced them to leave the village, according to a memo submitted to the Minister.
“Many have gone to India for work, but can also pay the interest,” said rights worker Shila Nepali. Every household now has more than 500,000 rupees in debt. We had taken loan for daily subsistence, now it has increased to go beyond our control, said one of the victims Jit Bahadur BK. In the memo, they have requested the Minister to probe the incident and guarantee a livelihood for the Dalit community members.
The disastrous flood that occurred in Dhorpatan municipality of the district on September 2 inflicted a big loss to the Salkhandi-Dhorpatan road section as a national priority project. The flood-fed Bhuji rivulet caused immoderate damages to human settlement along the banks at wards 5,6,7,8 and 9 and also took away around 10-km road section.
It may be noted that the landslide occurred at Surtiwang nearby Dhorpatan Deurali – the only wild hunting reserve of Nepal blocked the rivulet and triggered a flood. It had mostly caused loss of lives and properties in ward 9 of the municipality. According to the municipality sources, the swollen rivulet swept away Saljhandi-Dhorpatan corridor road as well as 11 micro hydropower projects, two schools, a health post and 11 suspension bridges.
With the road section washed away, the targeted relief and rescue operations have also been affected. Relief materials received from different quarters have been stuck in Burtibang when reaching out relief to the disaster-hit areas, which is almost 121-km away from the district headquarters, was not possible. Mayor Dev Kumar Nepali shared that works are progressing in full swing to immediately open up the obstructed road in collaboration with the Saljhandi-Dhorpatan road project. “The flood washed away road sections in many areas.
The rivulet eroded most of the road parts along the banks”. Mayor Nepali said, adding though it was not possible to immediately mend the roads in flood-ravaged area efforts are underway to connect the routes. The project has also taken swift actions for road repairs. It has designated a construction company for the same in the presence of people elected representatives following an on-site monitoring of the area. The project sources said that the track opening would complete in 20-25 days.
Relief distribution was made to the landslide victim families in Dilashaini rural municipality. Relief and compensation was provided to Aiete Bohora of Dilashaini-4, Balalli who lost his family members to the landslide. Aite’s 40-year-old wife, Pashupati, and 12-year-old son, Rikesh, died when the landslide occurred from above their house on 6 August night.
The landslide had completely damaged the house. The District Disaster Management Committee handed relief amount of Rs 400,000 to the survivor family. Baitadi’s Assistant Chief District Officer Lokendra Singh Negi shared the relief amount was provided to the victim family through the disaster management fund.
“There is a provision to provide relief amount of Rs 200,000 in case of a fatality of a member in the disaster and double the amount in case of the deaths of two members”. The collection of landslide-incurred loss is also taking place in other local levels of the district.
After the assessment of loss, the local disaster management committee would provide compensation and relief to the indigent people, said Chief District Officer of Baitadi Mohan Raj Joshi. Meanwhile, relief materials were distributed to four landslide victim families in Surnaya rural municipality of Baitadi.
Landslide victims including Bir Bahadur Madai, Dinesh Madai, Ram Bahadur Madai and Dharma Madai were provided wif relief aid, shared rural municipality vice-chair Leela Bista. The relief assistance received wif the support from Nepal Red Cross Society Baitadi chapter was distributed to the survivors.
(Narendra Singh Karki) The 40-km track opened under the ongoing Darchula-Tinkar roadway has been damaged at several places with the landslides triggered by the rainfall. Consequently, people’s movement along the track has been obstructed for one and half month. Landslides occurred at several places along the track stretching from Khalanga to Sunsera Tusarpani of Byas Rural municipality. “At a time when the delayed construction of Darchula-Tinkar roadway has already hit hard the people, the damages on the newly opened track further hassled people from Duhu and Byas area,” said Jay Dev Mahara of Duhu Rural Municipality-5. For now, it is difficult to resume road service in Hikila area. Mahara further said the track is so risky that people fear stone fall from the cliff. “It is risky to reach Khalanga from Byas,” he shared the plight. Meanwhile, Darchula-Tiknar road project has said efforts were on to resume the obstructed track. Project engineer Dines Raikhola said, “People have complained much of the shortage of food stuffs at Byas and Duhu. Construction of 20-meter support wall at Timurpata is imperative to repair the damaged road. Similarly, creation of gabion walls would be useful in other places,” he added. He however said if the big machines are mobilized, the track could be resumed in two weeks, according to enginee
Safe houses are to be built for around 9,000 families in Karnali in the current fiscal year. The Safe People’s Housing Programme is covering the households under poverty line and those rendered homeless due to natural disasters such as floods and landslides. As part of the programme, Surkhet will have the highest number of 2,643 safe houses while Rukum-West will have 1,199, Salyan 1,691, Dailekh 1,789, Jajarkot 1,015, Dolpa 512 and Jumla 506. The State government will provide assistance to replace the thatched roofs of the houses with the corrugated zinc sheets. Each house will receive Rs 50,000 for replacing the thatched roof. In this connection, the Federal Urban Project Implementation Unit has finalized the houses to be built in Surkhet Constituency-1. As many as 1,520 roofs will be replaced with corrugated zinc in the area. The households will get the grant from concerned local level, shared engineer of the project implementation unit Tikaram Pokharel. “There is a plan to place corrugated zinc sheets in the roofs of 9,000 houses in the current fiscal year”, he said, adding, “It is almost finalized in Surkhet and it is yet to be finalized in other districts. The beneficiary households will be finalized by a meeting of the people’s representatives and parliamentary members from the concerned constituency”. The poor families are expected to remain safe from recurring incidents of fire in the settlements. —
Kathmandu: The bodies of 22 people who were buried by landslide at Lidi of Jugal rural municipality-2 last Friday have been found. Three more bodies were found this morning, District Police Office Sindhupalchowk’s deputy superintendent Madhav Prasad Kafle said.
The bodies of 22-year-old Chhabilal Dong, suman Dong, 6, and Suraj Dong, 10, were retrieved from the rubble today, according to DSP Kafle.
Chief district Officer of Sindhupalchowk district, Umesh Kumar Dhakal, said the bodies of 22 out of the 39 people who went missing in the disaster have been found so far and the Nepal Army, Police and locals are searching for the remaining.
The bodies of 22 people who were buried by landslide at Lidi of Jugal rural municipality-2 last Friday have been found. Three more bodies were found this morning, District Police Office Sindhupalchowk’s deputy superintendent Madhav Prasad Kafle said. The bodies of 22-year-old Chhabilal Dong, suman Dong, 6, and Suraj Dong, 10, were retrieved from the rubble today, according to DSP Kafle. Chief district Officer of Sindhupalchowk district, Umesh Kumar Dhakal, said the bodies of 22 out of the 39 people who went missing in the disaster have been found so far and the Nepal Army, Police and locals are searching for the remaining.